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Common Specifications of Lithium-ion Battery Cells

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Lithium-ion batteries, often referred to as Li-ion batteries, encompass a range of types, including polymer lithium-ion, ternary lithium-ion, and iron lithium-ion batteries. These batteries come in different sizes and specifications, each tailored for specific applications. Below are some common lithium-ion battery cell specifications:

1. 32650 Lithium-ion Battery

  • Capacity: Typically ranges from 4500mAh to 6500mAh, with 5000mAh being common.
  • Chemistry: Lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4).
  • Dimensions: Diameter of approximately 32mm and length around 65mm.
  • Standard Voltage: 3.2V
  • End-of-Discharge Voltage: 2.0V
  • Charging Voltage Limit: 3.65±0.03V
  • Standard Charging Current: 0.2C/5A
  • Standard Discharge Current: 0.2C/5A
  • Fast Discharge Current: 0.5C/5A
  • Fast Charging Current: 0.5C/5A
  • Maximum Discharge Current: 3C/5A
  • Maximum Pulse Discharge Current: 5C/5A
  • Internal Resistance: ≤25mΩ
  • Typical Voltage at Delivery: Usually between 2.8V to 3.2V

2. 26650 Lithium-ion Battery

  • Capacity: Typically ranges from 3200mAh to 4500mAh.
  • Chemistry: Nickel cobalt manganese (NCM) lithium-ion cells at 3.6V and lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) at 3.2V.
  • Pulse Discharge Current: 15A (5 seconds)
  • Operating Temperature: Charging: 0°C to 55°C, Discharging: -20°C to 60°C
  • Storage Temperature: -20°C to 45°C

3. 21700 Lithium-ion Battery

  • Capacity: 21700 cells were developed by Panasonic for use in Tesla electric vehicles. They offer approximately 30% higher capacity compared to 18650 cells.
  • Energy Density: Tesla’s 21700 battery systems achieve an energy density of around 300Wh/kg, which is approximately 20% higher than their previous 18650 battery systems (250Wh/kg).
  • Chemistry: Typically, 21700 cells have the same lithium-ion chemistry as 18650 cells.

4. 18650 Lithium-ion Battery

  • Capacity: Capacities vary widely, ranging from 1000mAh to 3500mAh.
  • Dimensions: Diameter of 18mm and length of 65mm.
  • Chemistry: Commonly used chemistries include lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) and lithium manganese oxide (LiMn2O4).
  • Applications: Widely used in various devices, including laptops, flashlights, and e-cigarettes.

5. 14500 and 14250 Lithium-ion Batteries

  • Applications: These smaller-sized cells are used in low-power devices such as LED flashlights and desk lamps.

It’s worth noting that lithium-ion battery cells come in different categories, including energy storage, digital, and power types. Digital cells have higher requirements for capacity and internal resistance, while power cells demand higher discharge currents and lower internal resistance. These specifications cater to a wide range of applications, from consumer electronics to electric vehicles and renewable energy storage systems.

advantages of each type of lithium-ion battery cell:

1. 32650 Lithium-ion Battery:

  • Advantages:
    • Safety: Lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) chemistry is known for its superior thermal stability and reduced risk of thermal runaway, making these cells inherently safe.
    • Long Cycle Life: 32650 cells exhibit excellent cycle life, typically surpassing 2000 charge-discharge cycles, which extends the battery’s lifespan.
    • Stable Voltage: These cells maintain a stable voltage throughout their discharge cycle, ensuring consistent performance.

2. 26650 Lithium-ion Battery:

  • Advantages:
    • High Capacity: 26650 cells offer substantial capacity, making them suitable for high-capacity applications, such as electric vehicles and large-scale energy storage.
    • Improved Heat Dissipation: Due to their larger size, 26650 cells tend to have better heat dissipation properties, reducing the risk of overheating during high-current discharges.
    • Diverse Chemistries: They are available in various chemistries, including NCM and LiFePO4, catering to different application requirements.

3. 21700 Lithium-ion Battery:

  • Advantages:
    • Higher Energy Density: 21700 cells provide a notable increase in energy density compared to 18650 cells, resulting in improved energy storage capacity within the same physical size.
    • Increased Power Output: The higher energy density allows for increased power output, making them ideal for electric vehicles where power demands are significant.
    • Tesla Application: These cells have gained prominence in the electric vehicle industry, particularly through Tesla, due to their energy efficiency and power capabilities.

4. 18650 Lithium-ion Battery:

  • Advantages:
    • Versatility: 18650 cells are versatile and widely used across various applications, from consumer electronics to electric bikes and power banks.
    • Proven Technology: With a well-established track record, 18650 cells benefit from extensive research and development, leading to reliable and efficient performance.
    • Available in Various Chemistries: These cells are available in a range of chemistries, allowing manufacturers to choose the best fit for their specific application requirements.

5. 14500 and 14250 Lithium-ion Batteries:

  • Advantages:
    • Compact Size: These cells are compact and lightweight, making them suitable for portable and low-power devices.
    • Energy-Efficient: In low-power applications like LED flashlights and desk lamps, these cells provide efficient energy storage with extended runtimes.
    • Cost-Effective: Due to their smaller size and lower capacity, these cells are often more cost-effective for devices with modest power requirements.

In summary, the choice of lithium-ion battery cell type depends on the specific application’s requirements. While 32650 and 26650 cells excel in high-capacity and high-power applications, 21700 cells offer enhanced energy density and power output. Meanwhile, 18650 cells remain versatile and reliable across various industries. Smaller cells like 14500 and 14250 are ideal for portable, low-power devices. Each type has its unique advantages, allowing manufacturers to tailor their choice to meet specific performance and size criteria.


1. 32650 Lithium-ion Battery:

  • Notable Manufacturers:
    • BYD (Build Your Dreams): BYD is a leading Chinese manufacturer known for producing high-quality lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) 32650 cells used in electric vehicles and energy storage systems.
    • CALB (China Aviation Lithium Battery): CALB specializes in lithium-ion phosphate batteries and is a prominent supplier for electric buses and commercial vehicles.

2. 26650 Lithium-ion Battery:

  • Notable Manufacturers:
    • LG Chem: LG Chem, a South Korean company, is a major player in the lithium-ion battery market. They produce high-capacity 26650 cells with various chemistries for diverse applications.
    • Panasonic: Panasonic is another renowned manufacturer producing 26650 cells, often used in power tools and energy storage systems.

3. 21700 Lithium-ion Battery:

  • Notable Manufacturers:
    • Samsung SDI: Samsung SDI is a leading manufacturer of 21700 lithium-ion cells, utilized in electric vehicles and energy storage solutions.
    • CATL (Contemporary Amperex Technology Co. Limited): CATL is a prominent Chinese manufacturer producing 21700 cells, widely adopted by electric vehicle manufacturers globally, including Tesla.

4. 18650 Lithium-ion Battery:

  • Notable Manufacturers:
    • Sony: Sony was one of the pioneers in 18650 cell manufacturing and has maintained a reputation for quality and reliability.
    • Panasonic: Panasonic is a major producer of 18650 cells, used in laptops, power banks, and consumer electronics.
    • Samsung SDI: Samsung SDI manufactures 18650 cells that find applications in various consumer electronics and power tools.

5. 14500 and 14250 Lithium-ion Batteries:

  • Notable Manufacturers:
    • Energizer: Energizer is a well-known brand that produces a range of small lithium-ion cells, including 14500 and 14250, for use in portable devices like flashlights.
    • Duracell: Duracell is another popular brand offering compact lithium-ion batteries for low-power gadgets.

These are just a few examples of manufacturers in the lithium-ion battery industry. Many other companies worldwide contribute to the production of these cells, catering to a wide range of applications, from consumer electronics to electric vehicles and renewable energy storage. The choice of manufacturer often depends on factors such as product quality, cost, and application-specific requirements.

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